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Posts Tagged ‘Calciopoli’

Last week I wrote about the Calciopoli scandal and Inter’s apparent involvement. I noted that I wanted to do some more research on the subject, so that’s exactly what I’ve done. I can’t say that I dislike the Nerazzurri without knowing all the facts so further reading was definitely needed.

It’s safe to say Inter benefited from Calciopoli in a big way. Their biggest rivals were neutralised, all but ensuring their domestic dominance. The lack of competition meant they became Italy’s premiere football club by default and it’s only recently that Milan and Juventus have showed signs of recovering.

This alone isn’t enough of a reason to dislike Inter. The threads linking them to Calciopoli and the arrogance they’ve shown in its aftermath, however, most certainly are. Christian Vieri’s allegations and Massimo Morrati’s involvement with Telecom Italia (documented in my previous entry) are too strong to ignore, and I’m inclined to believe that this whole thing isn’t just a coincidence.

I’m no conspiracy theorist, but it doesn’t look good for Inter. The Nerazzurri’s involvement in the scandal was revealed last year with the not-so-shocking revelation that Inter had also contacted the referee designators, but they cannot be prosecuted as this took place more than two years ago. Italian law, eh? Gotta love it.

Had Inter’s involvement been revealed at the same time as their rivals then they would certainly have been punished. They might have not been dealt with as severely as Juventus, but the would’ve (and should’ve) felt the implications of their underhand actions.

Why didn’t this happen? Guido Rossi. A close friend or Moratti, Rossi headed TIM (a branch of Telecom Italia), the company that revealed the wiretappings and leaked the implication conversations, in 2006. Rossi was there when it all went down. There’s no way he wouldn’t have known about Moratti and Giacinto Facchetti’s conversations with the designators.

Paolo Bergamo, the chief referee designator, has openly revealed that nobody contacted him more than Facchetti during this period but his words were swept under the rug. Rossi knowingly ignored the Nerazzurri wiretaps that we now know existed, and it’s a sham that he hasn’t yet been prosecuted.

Where did these wiretaps come from? Two police officers with pending charges for interfering with wiretaps where, at the time, in-charge of handling all wiretap recordings and handing them to the prosecution. These officers were handed the intercepts by another officer, Adamo Bove, who was heading the wiretap operation and had set-up shop in a Telecom Italia building. Who was the work comissioned by? Massimo Moratti.

Bove’s secretary later revealed that instructions to disregard certain intercepts were passed onto everyone on the team, which explains why the Inter wiretaps weren’t revealed at the time. These confessions where heard in court on July 10th, 1996. Adamo Bove committed suicide 11 days later.

Moratti, when asked if he’d commissioned the wiretap operation, responded with uncertainty. “Yes I did. No, wait… maybe. I’m not sure.” This was in an interview with Corriere della Sera dated 31st August, 2006. The wiretaps were then, allegedly, illegally sold to the Gazzetta della Sport by the newspaper’s president, who also happened to be Inter’s vice president.

You do the maths.

It’s time to draw a line under this. I don’t know enough about Italian law to know if further implications could lead to Inter’s prosecution, but their comeuppance his to come. Calciopoli was Italian football’s darkest hour, and it’ll be years (maybe decades) before the league returns to its former glory. Inter must be punished for their role in what happened.

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This week-and-a-half’s feature club is Inter Milan: the most successful Italian club of the last decade and one of the most storied clubs in world football. Inter are probably one of the first clubs you think of when Serie A is mentioned, and for good reason. They have been tremendously successful over the past few years and, despite their recent troubles, are one of the biggest clubs in the world.

Some of the world’s greatest players have strutted their stuff for the Nerazzurri over the years, and their list of honours is very enviable. Only Juventus (27) have won more than Inter’s 18 Serie A titles (although they’re tied with city rivals AC Milan) and their Barcelona-toppling, Champions League-winning 2009-10 campaign was remarkable. They are a hugely popular side with a big global fan base, and I really, really don’t like them.

It’s not because their popular or successful or because I have a big distaste for any of their personnel (I’m a big José Mourinho supporter and an admirer of Javier Zanetti). I dislike the Nerazzurri for the way they benefited from Calciopoli and the penalties handed to their biggest rivals, even though their hands were just as dirty as anybody else’s (except Juventus, perhaps).

I assume that if you’re reading this blog then you probably know a thing or two about Calciopoli already, but if not I’d recommend using good old Wikipedia (shhh, you at the back) to read up on it. If you don’t know it as “Calciopoli” then you’ll probably know it as the 2006 Italian Football Betting Scandal. Teams were accused of rigging games by selecting “favourable referees” for certain matches.

The case had huge ramifications for Italian football. Four of the implicated clubs (Milan, Fiorentina, Lazio and Juventus) were all initially relegated, but most punishments were overturned on appeal. Some of them were still pretty severe nonetheless:-

  • Milan were deducted 30 points for the 2005-06 season, meaning they finished third instead of second. They were also forced to play one game behind closed doors in 06-07, and started that season on -8 points.
  • Fourth-place Fiorentina were kicked out of the 06-07 Champions League, deducted 30 points for 05-06, had to play two games behind closed doors and started 06-07 on -15.
  • Lazio, who finished sixth, were also deducted 30 points and booted from European competition (the UEFA Cup this time). This deduction left them just three points from relegation. For 06-07 they started on -3 points and had to play behind closed doors twice.
  • Reggina’s president, Pasquale Foti, was fined approximately £20,000 banned from all football activity for 2½ years. The club were fined £68k and started 06-07 on -11 points.
  • Juventus were handed the sternest punishment. Their Serie C1 relegation was changed to a Serie B relegation on appeal, and they were stripped of the Serie A titles they’d won in 2005 and 2006. They were kicked out of the Champions League, fined £31million, started 06-07 on -9 points and played three games in an empty stadium.

I’d say that some of the punishments handed-out on appeal were a tad lenient given the enormity of the situation, but I’m no expert on the situation. Lazio, Milan and Fiorentina only started showing signs of recovery in recent seasons, Reggina are stuck in Serie B and Juventus haven’t been the same since. Considering Calciopoli’s impact on these clubs, maybe the punishments were fair after all.

It doesn’t take a genius to see how Inter benefited from all this. Aside from being awarded the 2005-06 Scudetto despite finishing third, Inter had effectively seen their biggest rivals (Milan and Juventus) neutered. The lack of competition helped them two four legitimate straight titles until last season’s post-Mourinho demolition job. They dominated, and even won the league by 22 points in 2007.

It speaks volumes of the impact Calciopoli had on Inter’s fortunes that they collapsed as soon as Milan were strong enough to mount another challenge. There is nothing exceptional about Allegri’s Rossoneri, but they were functional, consistent team and the strongest opposition Inter had had since the scandal. A lot of blame for Inter’s fall can be placed on Rafa Benitez’s dire man management and their ageing squad, but it’s no coincidence that they started to slide as their rivals recovered.

The Nerazzurri weren’t exactly flying before Calciopoli either. They won just three titles in 40 years between 1966 and 2006, and their awarded 2005-06 Scudetto was the first they’d “won” since 1989. Inter often finished seasons without qualifying for Europe. Inter were also-rans to Juventus and Milan, and even the two Rome clubs (Roma and Lazio) won Serie A during Inter’s barren decade-and-a-half.

Calciopoli turned them into a dominant force. They ruled the roost because there was nobody to challenge them, even if Roma did push them all the way in 2008. Mourinho’s influence shouldn’t be completely discounted but, on a domestic level, Inter were “better” by default.

I wouldn’t have had a problem with this if Inter hadn’t actively taken part in Calciopoli. They weren’t punished, right? That must mean they were innocent? I wouldn’t be writing this if I thought they were. Inter were just as guilty of tarnishing Italian football’s reputation by participating in the scandal as everyone else, and the way they’ve trumpeted themselves as an honourable club in the aftermath is arrogant and hypocritical.

Inter aren’t innocent. It was found last year that the Nerazzurri’s then-president Giacinto Facchetti (RIP) had contacted Italian football’s referee selection committee to “discuss” which referees should officiate their games, just as Fiorentina had done. I’m not conspiracy theorist, but it’s very suspicious that we’ve only just heard of these discussions and the telephone transcripts weren’t leaked to the press at the time (as Juve’s were).

Juve have always protested their punishment and it’s hard to feel sympathetic for them, but they do have a point. Why weren’t Inter implicated? The Bianconeri were crippled by Calciopoli, and, if what I’ve read is to be believed, Inter should’ve been reprimanded as well.

FIGC president Franco Carraro resigned in 2006 after the first wave of phone calls had been revealed. Guido Rossi, Inter’s vice president, came in to head the investigation and soon, not long after the verdict was announced, left his position to head TIM (a branch of Telecom Italia). Telecom Italia are Italy’s biggest telecommunications company, and the ones who wiretapped the phone conversations between convicted Juventus president Luciano Moggi and the referee selectors.

Last year’s Inter-implicating calls were leaked by Moggi’s lawyers, not Telecom Italia. Rossi was good friends with Inter president Massimo Moratti, who was also on the TIM board. Putting two-and-two together, it’s not hard to see what was going on. Rossi must’ve known what was going-on with Inter, and given his involvement with Moratti (and Moratti’s involvement with Telecom Italia) it would’ve been in everyone’s best interests to keep Inter’s Calciopoli involvement under wraps.

Again, I don’t want to fall for what could be a load of cloak and dagger nonsense, but it’s hard not to see this as a murky plot to cripple Juventus and establish Inter’s dominance (this is Italy, after all). Christian Vieri made allegations last year that his phone had been tapped by Inter (who wanted to spy on him) and that the Nerazzurri squad were forced to sign contracts promising not to mention the club’s plans to “bring Juventus and Milan down.”

“I am ready to show everyone the document, everyone knew what was happening. I was spied upon because I cannot keep these things locked up. 70% of the contract was to be paid by inter and the other 30% by Telecom (Italia)” – Vieri speaking to firenzeviola.it

The Calciopoli scandal continues to rage-on and attempts to prove Inter’s guilt continue. I’m willing to accept the possibility that these theories on the Nerazzurri’s involvement are nonsense, but it certainly doesn’t look like that’s the case. I’m going to use this week to do some more research on Calciopoli and hopefully get a better idea of what really happened during the 2005-06 season. The timing couldn’t be any better (with fresh Calciopoli-related sentences being handed-out last night), and I’m looking forward to getting stuck in.

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Now that I’ve familiarised myself with Lecce’s squad it’s time to follow the usual formula and research their history. The club was formed in 1908 as Sporting Club Lecce and, like a lot of Italian teams, competed in multiple sports (initially cycling, track-and-field and football).

Lecce spent their early days competing in regional competitions and actually disbanded during the 1923-24 season before returning in 1927 under their current moniker: Unione Sportiva Lecce. They continued to potter around in local southern Italian leagues, before a play-off with Taranto Sport (now of Lega Pro) was arranged in 1929 to see which side would enter the FIGC’s new Serie B competition.

Lecce won the game 3-2 and entered the inaugural 1929-30 Serie B season, defeated current Serie A side Novara 2-1 in their first fixture. A 13th-place finish that season was followed by 17th in 1930-31, but the club folded for a second time in 1932 and didn’t return for another four years.

Lecce's squad for the 1929-30 season: their first in Serie B.

It’s not clear why Lecce stopped competing at these times but I’d definitely like to find out. If I can learn more about these odd situations I’ll document what I’ve found later in the week.

The Salentini (“Salentians”) were placed in Serie C when they returned and finished 11th at the first time of asking (1936-37). Adding to the turmoil, Lecce had to withdraw from Serie C the next season and did so just four days into the new campaign. In 1938-39 they finished 3rd but the FIGC ended-up changing this to 12th when it was found that Lecce had violated the league’s federal regulations (how, again, isn’t clear).

Things improved for Lecce and they won Serie C in 1945-46, thus ending a sabbatical from Serie B. Three years later they were relegated back to Serie C which started a long period in the doldrums. This was a particularly grim period for Lecce fans as their club didn’t return to Serie B until 1976, but it did see the emergence of a hero in Anselmo Bislenghi. Bislenghi’s scored 84 league goals for Lecce during this period: a total that’s yet to be bettered.

Fortunately, Lecce have barely been in Serie C since. The past four decades have seen them frequently flutter between Serie B and Serie A, which has given them the reputation of a yo-yo team. I don’t think it’s too unfair to see them as calcio’s answer to West Brom.

Scandal erupted in 1980 (before the Salentini’s first Serie A promotion) when Lecce’s president Franco Jurlano was implicated as a match-fixer. Jurlano was able to prove his innocence, but player Claudius Merlo was hit with a lengthy ban. Misfortune of a different kind followed in 1983: players Michele Lorusso (the club’s appearance record holder with 415) and Ciro Pezzella perished in a car accident. The tragedy no doubt contributed to Lecce’s poor 14th finish in Serie B.

The Salentini won Serie A promoted for the first time in 1985 but couldn’t survive and were immediately relegated. They reached the play-offs next season but a 2-1 loss to Cesena meant they’d have to wait until 1988-89. Manager Carlo Mazzone led Lecce to their highest-ever finish (9th), but safety wasn’t mathematically secured until the last day of the season with a 3-1 win against Torino.

The decision not to tear apart the squad that got them promoted is said to have played a big part in Lecce’s success that season. The Salentini maintained their team spirit by keeping their Serie B players around, and supplementing the team with the likes of striker Pedro Pablo Pasculli and future Juventus captain (and coach) Antonio Conte. A similar squad finished 14th the next season, before a Zbigniew Boniek-coached Lecce were relegated in 1990-91.

The next eight years brought seven promotions and relegations. Lecce returned to Serie A after two seasons, but consecutive relegations saw them spend a single season in Serie C1 (1995-96) before consecutive promotions brought them back to Serie A. Two more up-and-down years followed, and a three-year Serie A run ended in 2001-02 with a 16th-place finished and relegation. Phew.

Delio Rossi was appointed manager in 2002 and Lecce were promoted again. They recovered from a terrible start well and finished 10th in 2003-04, beating Inter Milan and Juventus along the way. Rossi left in 2004, replaced by renowned Czech tactician Zdenek Zeman who brought his trademark open, attacking philosophies to the Salentini.

A squad featuring the likes of Mirko Vucinic and Valeri Bojinov finished 10th in 2004-05, and Lecce set a unique record along the way. They scored 66 goals that term (second only to Juventus’ 67) but had the worst defence with 73 conceded. This was the first time in history that the team with the worst defence in Serie A had survived relegation. Zeman, eh? Gotta love him.

2005-06 was a season of struggle for Lecce. Zeman left that summer and the club changed managers twice more before the end of a season that saw them finish 19th. There were hopes that the Calciopoli scandal would help them stave-off relegation, but they started 2006-07 in Serie B again under Zeman’s tutelage.

Zdenek Zeman

The Prague native wasn’t as fortunate this time around and was sacked after a run of 10 defeats in 18 games. Giuseppe Papadopulo came in and oversaw a finish of 9th, before a 3rd-place finished and a playoff win over Albinoleffe saw Lecce return to Serie A for the 2008-09 season.

You can probably guess what happened next. Papadopulo left the club after a difference of opinion with the club’s general manager. Mario Beretta came in but was replaced by current manager Luigi De Canio, who could only help Lecce to seven points from their last 10 games. Surprise, surprise: Lecce were relegated.

2009-10 was a superb season for the Salentini, who took 1st-place in November and didn’t relinquish it until the season’s end. De Canio lead them back into Serie A and, lo and behold, they weren’t relegated the following season! Lecce survived with a game to spare, and compounded their joy with a 2-0 win over relegated rivals Bari on the final day.

Talk about a mixed bag. Lecce’s promotion/relegation records read like a laundry list, and it’s hard to pick highlights out. Zdenek has always fascinated me as a character and tactician, so I might use this week as an excuse to write something about him. Aside from that I’d like to find out more about some of Lecce’s key players over the years, as I’ve found information quite thin on the ground so far.

Tomorrow I’ll have some more for you. Hopefully this primer served its purpose.

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A.C. Milan

Associazione Calcio Milan, to give them their full name, are one of the world’s most successful clubs. Last year’s Scudetto win was Milan’s 18th in total, and only Real Madrid have won more Champions League titles than the Rossoneri’s seven. Add five Coppa Italias and a further 11 European and intercontinental titles to this and you have a truly enviable trophy room.

Silvio Berlusconi’s team have been at European football’s forefront for years. Few clubs can match their star-studded list of former players, and the teams built by Arrigo Sacchi and Fabio Capello in the late-80s/mid-90s are two of the best I’ve ever seen. So many of my footballing heroes have graced the Rossoneri shirt over the years. Who can deny class of Franco Baresi, Paolo Maldini, Andrea Pirlo and George Weah? Going further back there’s Gianni Rivera, Nils Liedholm, Frank Rijkaard…

Milan’s current squad isn’t as star-studded as it once was, but the same can be said of any other Serie A team in 2011. Italy is still reeling from the aftermath of the 2006 Calciopoli scandal, and a lack of financial clout means that Italian clubs can’t hope to match the inflated transfer fees and wages required to attract today’s top talents. Nonetheless, this Milan side is functional and effective. They are the best team in Italy, but probably lack the dynamism to compete for the Champions League.

Coach Massimiliano Allegri has done an excellent job. An unheralded appointment of whom little was expected, Allegri joined Milan in 2010 after two successful years with Cagliari. He ended Inter Milan’s run of six consecutive titles by winning last year’s Scudetto, a feat he’ll be expected to repeat this season, and has managed to form a cohesive unit with some of the game’s most volatile personalities.

One of Allegri’s most impressive attributes at Milan has been his ability to get the best from his players. One-time Tottenham Hotspur cast-off Kevin-Prince Boateng has excelled as an unorthodox trequartista, veteran Mark van Bommel is enjoying an Indian summer and defenders Ignazio Abate and Thiago Silva have improved leaps and bounds. Notorious rabble-rousers Zlatan Ibrahimovic, Antonio Cassano and Robinho have formed a unified strikeforce with Pato, and ‘keeper Christian Abbiati is better than ever.

Milan have had a strong mercato. Losing Andrea Pirlo is a blow on paper, but Allegri’s system demands energy and athleticism from its midfielders, which, lets be honest, doesn’t really fit the Metronomo’s playing style. Alberto Aquilani and Antonio Nocerino have been signed to cover Pirlo’s departure, and the latter should play a huge role in any Milanese success this season.

Elsewhere former Marseille man Taye Taiwo should solve Milan’s longstanding issues at left-back and young forward Stephan El Shaarawy provides a much-needed pace injection. Loanees Ibrahimovic, Boateng and goalkeeper Marco Amelia have also had their deals made permanent, completing a squad that is deeper and more versatile than last season’s.

Milan have a rich, deep history and I fully intend on researching it this week. I grew up watching the Rossoneri sides of the 1990’s and it’ll be a pleasure revisiting them. That said, my knowledge of pre-Sacchi Milan is sketchy to say the least so I may choose to delve into the earlier archives of Milan’s history. Either way, expect the results of my research to surface here later in the week.

Naturally I’ll also be covering Milan’s fixtures for the week. Tomorrow night they face Barcelona in their first Champions League game of the season, and on Sunday they take-on Napoli at the Stadio San Paolo. The Barcelona game is particularly interesting to me. Watching Milan fall to Tottenham last season was embarrassing, but a spirited performance against the best team in the world would go a long way to improving Italian football’s flagging European reputation.

Check back soon for more updates!

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